Guidelines for Contributors:

We strive to publish articles that analyze appropriation as a process of collaboration with Shakespeare, and to that end seek work that either demonstrates something new both about Shakespeare and about the field of appropriation or that works with Shakespeare to extend theories of adaptation and appropriation. To that end, we send essays out to readers with expertise in both fields on inquiry (for example, to a Shakespearean and to a film scholar, or to a Shakespearean and a Joycean, or a Shakespearean and a specialist on Restoration Drama). At least one of our readers will be a Shakespearean.

Articles generally run from 5000 to 7000 words, but we also occasionally publish "clusters" of shorter essays on a related theme. We send articles out for review as soon as we find a reader with expertise in the field who is willing to serve. Each essay will generally be sent to no more than two readers; if these readers disagree, the editors make the final decision. We strongly encourage authors who receive a report to “Revise and Resubmit” to do so, with the guidance of the editors.

Our style "bible" is Richard Lanham's Revising Prose. We believe that, no matter how complex and nuanced an argument, writers can communicate their ideas clearly, concisely, and elegantly. We admire the mot juste. We encourage early-career researchers and writers, in particular, to pay attention to matters of style.

We welcome proposals for future essay-clusters by groups of scholars. If you would like to propose an essay-cluster (two or more essays on a related theme) for a general or a special issue, please send manuscripts to the editors, preferably along with the name of another scholar to introduce the cluster. Essay-clusters are subject to the same peer-review process as articles considered singly.

Address correspondence and submissions to the general editors at lenders[at]

Address books for review to the Book Review Editor Anna Forrester at anna.forrester25[at]

Special Guidelines for Online Authorship and Publication

1. Multimedia: B&L encourages contributors to use the online format to its best advantage by imagining how to enhance or illustrate their essays with multimedia (screen captures, sound clips, images, and so on). Indicate where in the essay such enhancements are to appear, by including "thumbnails" or brief descriptive captions.

2. Sub-headings: Such illustrations or enhancements also function as navigation devices for on-screen reading, as do sub-headings, which we also require from our authors. Insert a sub-heading about every five pages, depending on the other navigational cues that your readers will use as they scroll through your texts. Sub-headings should be textual rather than numerical (unless you are Graham Holderness; see B&L 1.2).

3. Short paragraphs: We encourage authors to break up long paragraphs for ease of on-screen reading. Escshew the single-sentence journalistic paragraph, however. The old rule-of-thumb, "3-5 sentences," seems to work well on screen. Writers may, of course, use longer paragraphs with images, sound clips, or other multimedia to break up a block of text if that seems more appropriate.

4. Strip out special characters. For mark-up and online publication, we require plain text: please strip out "curly" quotation marks and apostrophes, em-dashes, "live" hyperlinks, ordinals, and other special characters, apart from necessary diacriticals (see below).

5. Diacriticals. We can publish diacriticals online, but it takes some special coding, and occasionally hand-drawing, for them to appear on-screen and in the .pdf printouts. If your necessary diacriticals have Unicodes, please send them to us at the time of acceptance -- this will help.

6. Minimize discursive notes. Please try to integrate your argument into the main body of your paper rather than keeping substantive matter in the notes. Not only is this good style, it makes it easier for an on-screen reader to scroll through your essay with fewer distractions.

Style Sheet for Accepted Contributors:

Accepted Contributors must send us the following:

1. Author's Bio: 50-100 words, including name, affiliation, select publications, and current research interests.

2. Abstract: paragraph (ca. 150-200 words) summarizing the essay's argument.

3. Article of 5000-9000 words, in B&L house style

4. List of Works Cited, in B&L house style

5. Signed Publication Agreement (will be sent to you immediately before we go "live").


1. Style:  B&L uses The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th or 15th edition, with a preference for parenthetical citations using the author-date -page number system. We can accept manuscripts in Word or RTF formats. We prefer email attachments, but also accept manuscripts on diskette or CD.

2. Citations: We prefer, where possible, parenthetical citations using the author-date-page number system, e.g., Fineman, taking a world-historical point of view, hypothesizes that "Shakespeare marks the beginning of the modernist self and Freud . . . its end, the two of them together thus bracketing an epoch of subjectivity" (Fineman 1986, 47); but Sinfield largely avoids the issue, asserting a "sufficient continuity" between these understandings (Sinfield 1992, 60), while insisting that what has been the problem all along is, not selfhood, but essentialist humanism, the way in which we interpret selfhood.

Please reserve endnotes for substantive explanatory comments. We prefer endnotes created through a word processor's endnote function, but can also work with endnotes collected in a separate document. For two authors with the same surname, include first initial in parenthetical citations. For two or more works by a single author, include author, date and page number: e.g., (Sinfield 1985, 72). For two or more works by a single author published in the same year, allot a letter to each work published in the same year, in alphabetical order: e.g., (Nisenson 2000a, 202).

3. Quotations: For poetry of three or more lines and prose quotations of four or more lines, use indented block quotations. Shorter quotations may be included in the body of the essay as inline quotations.

3a. Avoid beginning a new paragraph after a block (indented) quotation.

4. Languages: While some foreign words or phrases may be utilized in the text (and may be italicized), the article otherwise should be entirely in English. If your text includes quotations in a language other than English, use authoritative translations (or your own), followed by English translation in parentheses. Identify the translators in the footnotes. The titles of books and articles in languages other than English should be followed immediately by their English translations in parentheses. Adhere strictly to the conventions of any foreign language you use; we depend on you for accuracy. Please use American rather than British spelling except in quotations.


Font: Use Times Roman 12 (non-proportional) font.

Margins: Set at 1-inch right, left, top, and bottom. Do not justify right margin. Do not set widow/orphan protection.

Line Spacing: Double space (2 line spaces) entire manuscript, including notes and block quotes.

Page Numbers: Number pages in upper right corner, beginning with page 2 (suppress page 1 number). Otherwise, use no running head.

Paragraphs: Use Tab key to indent paragraphs. Use automatic (soft) return within each paragraph (use hard return only for paragraph end). Use 1 hard return at the end of each paragraph. Use 2 hard returns only between sections (if any).

Character Spacing: Use 1 space after periods, colons, commas and semicolons. To create a dash, type 2 hyphens with one space before the preceding word and one space after the following word. To type an ellipsis, type a space between each of the 3 periods and between the preceding and following words. In the case of an ellipsis following a period, do not put a space between the period and the preceding word. Do not worry about an ellipsis breaking at the end of a line.

Hyphenation: Do not use automatic hyphenation. Do not hyphenate end-of-line words unless they are normally hyphenated.


Send manuscripts in Word (doc or docx) or RTF formats as email attachments to Share multimedia items via dropbox or other filesharing tool.


Borrowers and Lenders: The Journal of Shakespeare and Appropriation is supported by the University of Georgia English Department, the Willson Center for Humanities and Arts, University of Georgia, the Franklin College of Arts and Sciences, the President's Venture Fund of the University of Georgia, and the Emma Project.

Permissions and Disclaimers

The opinions expressed on this site do not necessarily reflect the views of the editors, the English Department, or the University System of Georgia.

Borrowers and Lenders holds copyright on essays it publishes, but authors may share their essays freely, and readers may cite essays freely with appropriate attribution. (Please acknowledge Borrowers and Lenders in citations, weblinks, and other transformative uses.)

Multimedia may not be downloaded or copied from this site without permission from the copyright holder or holders. In many cases, Borrowers and Lenders does not hold the copyright on multimedia.

Authors are responsible for securing any necessary permissions for illustrations to their essays. Contact the General Editors if you are having difficulty doing this.

The editors have made every effort to obtain permission from copyright holders, but in some cases have been unable to contact the holders.

If you have any further information about copyrights and permissions of material on this site, please contact the editors.

ISSN 1554-6985

About the Journal

The editors of Borrowers and Lenders: The Journal of Shakespeare and Appropriation are greatly grieved by the recent untimely passing of our co-founding and co-general editor, Christy Desmet. A tribute to her life and work appears here: Remembering Christy Desmet

The journal continues with Sujata Iyengar, Matt Kozusko, and Louise Geddes serving as co-general editors; with Geoff Way as Digital Appropriations editor and Jim Casey as Appropriations in Performance editor; and with the able assistance of UGA PhD candidates Sarah Mayo as Managing Editor and Anna Forrester as Book Review Editor.

Authors, Editors, Colleagues, and Readers who wish to make a donation in honor of Christy Desmet may donate online to the English Department. Christy Desmet Fund

Borrowers and Lenders, winner of the CELJ Best New Journal Award in 2007, is a peer-reviewed, online, multimedia Shakespeare journal ( The journal is indexed in the MLA Bibliography, World Shakespeare Bibliography, and other databases.

Check our Facebook page for updates and release announcements!

Editorial Staff

Founding Editors: Christy Desmet and Sujata Iyengar, University of Georgia
General Editors: Sujata Iyengar, University of Georgia; Matthew Kozusko, Ursinus College; Louise Geddes, Adelphi University
Associate Editor: Robert Sawyer, East Tennessee State University
Associate Editor, Appropriations in Performance: Jim Casey, Arcadia University
Associate Editor, Digital Appropriations: Geoff Way, Washburn University
Managing Editor: Sarah Mayo, University of Georgia
Book Review Editor: Anna Forrester, University of Georgia
Editorial Assistant: Mikaela Warner, University of Georgia
Software Code Writer: Ron Balthazor, University of Georgia
Website Design: William Reeves, University of Georgia

Editorial Board

Michael Best, University of Victoria, Victoria
Mark Thornton Burnett, Queen’s University, Belfast
Richard Burt, University of Florida
Thomas Cartelli, Muhlenberg College
Juliet Dusinberre, Girton College, Cambridge
Daniel Fischlin, University of Guelph, Ontario
Sarah Hatchuel, University of Le Havre
Russell Jackson, University of Birmingham
Alexa Alice Joubin, George Washington University
Jeffrey Kahan, University of La Verne
Ruru Li, University of Leeds
Arthur Little, University of California, Los Angeles
Ania Loomba, University of Pennsylvania
Sharon O'Dair, University of Alabama
Laurie Osborne, Colby College
Patricia Parker, Stanford University
David Riggs, Stanford University
Katherine Rowe, Smith College
Anne Russell, Wilfrid Laurier University
Jyotsna Singh, Michigan State University
Bruce Smith, University of Southern California
Lisa S. Starks, University of South Florida St. Petersburg
Stanley Wells, Shakespeare Institute, University of Birmingham

Borrowers and Lenders: The Journal of Shakespeare and Appropriation is a peer-reviewed, online, multimedia journal that welcomes original scholarship engaging with the afterlives of Shakespearean texts and their literary, filmic, multimedia, and critical histories. It encourages contributors to use the online format to its best advantage, in particular, by imagining how to enhance or illustrate their essays with multimedia (screen captures, sound clips, images, and so on). B&L won the CELJ's "Best New Journal" Award in 2007. B&L is fully indexed in the MLA Bibliography. B&L is currently co-edited by Dr. Sujata Iyengar (iyengar at uga dot edu), Dr. Matt Kozusko (mkozusko at ursinus dot edu), and Dr. Louise Geddes (lgeddes at adelphi dot edu) correspondence should be addressed to lenders at uga dot edu or to Managing Editor Ms. Sarah Mayo at semayo at uga dot edu.

Supporters of Borrowers and Lenders: The Journal of Shakespeare and Appropriation and of Shakespeareat UGA may donate online via the English Department Fund

Please indicate in the “Special Instructions/Comments” box that you would like to support Borrowers and Lenders: The Journal of Shakespeare and Appropriation. We use any funds we receive to support graduate student assistants.

© Borrowers and Lenders 2005-2021